Canning Lingo

Here is an A to Z Lingo List (words) Canner's throw around

Acid Foods - Food which contain enough acid to result in a pH of 4.6 or lower. This would include all fruits except figs, most tomatoes, fermented and pickles vegetables, relishes. Jams and jellies which includes marmalade's. Acid foods may be processed in boiling water bath.

Altitude - The vertical elevation of a location above the sea level.

Ascorbic Acid - The chemical name for Vitamin C. Lemon Juice contains large quantities of ascorbic acid and is commonly used to prevent browning of peeled, light colored fruits and vegetables.

Bacteria - A large group of one-celled microorganisms widely distributed in nature.

Blancher - A 6 to 8 quart leaded pot designed with a fitted perforated basket to hold food in boiling water, or with a fitted rack to steam food.

Boiling Water Canner - A large Stainless Steel lidded kettle wit h a jar rack. This is designed for heat processing 7  pint or quart jars in boiling water.

Botulism - An illness caused by eating toxin produced by growth of "Clostricium Botulinum" bacteria in moist, low acid food, containing less than 2% oxygen. Proper heat processing destroys this bacteria in canned food

Canning - A method of preserving food in air-tight vacuum- sealed containers and heat proicessin sufficiently to enable storage of the food at normal home temperatures.,

Canning Salt - Also called picking salt. It is regular table salt without the anticaking home or iodint additives.

Citrus Acid - A form of acid that can be added to canned foods. It increases the acuduty of low-acid foods and may improve the flavor.

Cold Packed - Canning procedure in which jars are filled with raw food. “Raw pack”is the preferred term for describing this practice. “Cold pack” is oftenused incorrectly to refer to foods that are open-kettle canned or jars that are heat-processed in boiling water.

Enzymes - Proteins in food which accelerate many flavor, color, texture, and nutritional changes, especially when food is cut, sliced, crushed, bruised, and exposed to air. Proper blanching or hot-packing practices destroy enzymes and improve food quality.

Exhausting - Removal of air from within and around food and from jars and
canners. Blanching exhausts air from live food tissues. Exhausting or venting of pressure canners is necessary to prevent a risk of botulism in low-acid canned foods.

Fermentation - Changes in food caused by intentional growth of bacteria, yeast, or mold. Native bacteria ferment natural sugars to lactic acid, a major
flavoring and preservative in sauerkraut and in naturally fermented dills. Alcohol, vinegar, and some dairy products are also fermented foods.

Head Space - The unfilled space above food or liquid in jars. Allows for food
expansion as jars are heated, and for forming vacuums as jars cool.

Heat processing - Treatment of jars with sufficient heat to enable storing food at normal home temperatures.

Hermetic seal - An absolutely airtight container seal which prevents reentry of air or microorganisms into packaged foods.

Hot pack -  Heating of raw food in boiling water or steam and filling it hot into jars.

Low-acid foods - Foods which contain very little acid and have a pH above 4.6. The acidity in these foods is insufficient to prevent the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Vegetables, some tomatoes, figs, all meats, fish, seafoods, and some dairy foods are low acid. To control all risks of botulism, jars of these foods must be (1) heat processed in a pressure canner, or (2) acidified to a pH of 4.6 or lower before processing in boiling water.

Microorganisms  -Independent organisms of microscopic size, including bacteria, yeast, and mold. When alive in a suitable environment, they grow rapidly and may divide or reproduce every 10 to 30 minutes. Therefore, they reach high populations very quickly. Undesirable
microorganisms cause disease and food spoilage. Microorganisms are sometimes intentionally added to ferment foods, make antibiotics, and for other reasons.

Mold - A fungus-type microorganism whose growth on food is usually visible and colorful. Molds may grow on many foods, including acid foods like jams and jellies and canned fruits. Recommended heat processing and sealing practices prevent their growth on these foods.

 Mycotoxins - Toxins produced by the growth of some molds on foods.

Open-kettle canning - A non-recommended canning method. Food is supposedly adequately
heat processed in a covered kettle, and then filled hot and sealed in sterile jars. Foods canned this way have low vacuums or too much air, which permits rapid loss of quality in foods. Moreover, these foods often spoil because they become recontaminated while the jars are being filled.

Pasteurization - Heating of a specific food enough to destroy the most heat-resistant pathogenic or disease-causing microorganism known to be associated with that food. PH A measure of acidity or alkalinity. Values range from 0 to 14. A food is neutral when its pH is 7.0, lower values are increasingly more acid; higher values are increasingly more alkaline.

Pickling - The practice of adding enough vinegar or lemon juice to a low-acid food to lower its pH to 4.6 or lower. Properly pickled foods may be safely heat processed in boiling water.

Pressure Canner  - A specifically designed metal kettle with a lockable lid used for heat processing low-acid food. These canners have jar racks, one or more safety devices, systems for exhausting air, and a way to measure or control pressure. Canners with 16- to 23- quart capacity are common.
The minimum volume of canner that can be used is one that, will contain 4 quart jars. Use of pressure saucepans with smaller capacities is not recommended.

Raw pack - The practice of filling jars with raw, unheated food. Acceptable for canning low-acid foods, but allows more rapid quality losses in acid foods heat processed in boiling water.

Spice bag - A closable fabric bag used to extract spice flavors in pickling solution.

Style of pack - Form of canned food, such as whole, sliced, piece, juice, or sauce.
The term may also be used to reveal whether food is filled raw or hot into jars.

Vacuum - The state of negative pressure. Reflects how thoroughly air is removed
from within a jar of processed food—the higher the vacuum, the less
air left in the jar.

Yeasts-  A group of microorganisms which reproduce by budding. They are
used in fermenting some foods and in leavening breads

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