What exactly is a preserve. Let us start from the beginning but not get to goofy. Fruit Preserves are the preparation of fruits or vegetables. Most often they are canned adding sugar and pectin. Back in the day prior to 1939 they never used pectin and thus many preservers are not using it today. The ingredients you use and how you prepare your preserves determines what type it is.
There are a few types. There are sweet preserves which will use sugar, honey or a sweetening agent. There are savory preserves using vegetables. and there are savory. Let us get started and it will be in alphabetical order.
What is a Chutney?
A chutney can be made from with a fruit or a vegetable. It is a pungent type of relish. Chutney's always have a variation of spices added. It is noted that American and European chutneys have vinegar and sugar added and are cooked until thick. Chutney is of Indian origin.
What is a Confit ?
A confit of which I have yet to do is food that have been cooked in oil or sugar water. Sealed and stored in a cool, dark place. This is known to be the oldest way to preserve food. The term is also used for preserved meats, it is also used for fruits and vegetables seasoned with and cooked with honey and or sugar until jam-like.
What is a Conserve?
This is whole fruit jam. The fruit is "stewed" in sugar. Conserves are known to be thicker than you standard jam and may also include nuts and or dried fruit.
What is Fruit Butter?
This is delicious and one of my favorites. This process is when you take whole fruit and run it through a food mill, sieve or blend it after it has been processed by heat. It is cooked to the point of making it paste like.
What is Fruit Curd ?
This is a spread or dessert topping that has been made with lemon, lime, orange.
What is a Fruit Spread ?
Fruit spread is a jam/preserve with no sugar added.
What is a Jam ?
Jam is chopped fruit or vegetables that is cooked crushed into bite size pieces and heated in sugar and pectin to gel. Jam has a velvet consistency without large chunks of fruit, good color, and great fruit flavor.
What is Jelly?
Jelly is a fruit spread made from sweetened fruit/vegetable juice that is set by using it's ( U.S. Jelly) naturally occurring pectin. Natural pectin is extracted from the cooked fruit thus creating a clear sparkling jelly.
What is Marmalade?
This is one of my favorite ! I make a great tangy snappy lemon marmalade! Marmalade is a preserve made from juice and peels of citrus fruits boiled in sugar.
Disclaimer: This is not all inclusive information/definitions for preserving.
You should have a basic knowledge and understanding of the canning
process before proceeding. Please consult your local Center for Home Preservation for additional information and available classes.
Excerpts for information was from Chutney , Confit , Conserve , Fruit Butter , Fruit Curd , Jam , Jelly , Marmalade